Research and scholarship advance the field and establish the evidence for our use of POCUS across all specialties of medicine. Take a look at our regularly updated Zotero library of POCUS literature. We are also dedicated to delivering high quality and innovative research in POCUS, so check out our featured publications.
This is a resource document published in CJEM providing advice about best practices for clinical POCUS program management. We specifically highlight the role of the POCUS director, training and granting of POCUS privileges, elements of a quality assurance and improvement program, and ultrasound machine purchase and maintenance. The supplement includes an example business case for financial support of a POCUS program.
This was a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the test characteristics of ultrasound for diagnosing peritonsillar abscess. We included 17 studies with 812 patients, 541 of whom had peritonsillar abscess. The pooled sensitivity of ultrasound was 86% and specificity was 76%, so highly sensitive but only moderately specific for peritonsillar abscess.
This was an international effort led by Bob Jarman, Anna Colclough, and Cian McDermott and endorsed by the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) to provide recommendations on commonly used heart and lung POCUS applications, including the assignment of levels of evidence (LoE) and grading of the recommendations (using the GRADE framework).
Short version - PMID: 36228630
Long version - PMID: 36228631
We used a modified Delphi process with an expert panel recruited from the CAEP Emergency Ultrasound Committee and the Canadian Ultrasound Fellowship Collaborative. After completing 3 rounds of sequential surveys, we ultimately identified the top 5 most influential papers on FAST and on E-FAST.
A letter to the editor in the Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery addressing a highly flawed study on the use of ultrasound in traumatic pneumothorax. The study in question retrospectively found a sensitivity of ultrasound for traumatic pneumothorax far lower than the current published literature. We highlight many methodologic issues with the study design that limit the applicability of their conclusions.
Study providing the most complete and current description of POCUS training in Canadian emergency medicine residency programs. POCUS training in Canadian emergency medicine programs is prevalent, but there is variability in support for POCUS leads, delivery of training, determination of proficiency, and presence of quality assurance.
A case report describing the identification of a large anterior thigh hematoma on POCUS in a patient with delayed compartment syndrome of the thigh. The POCUS Journal is a completely open access publication with no publication or access fees.
A letter to the editor calling for Canadian healthcare systems to invest more resources in digital archiving systems for POCUS. “There needs to be advocacy for hospitals to provide appropriate IT funding and resources to implement digital archiving systems, and alternate avenues such as the crowdsourcing of low-cost workflow solutions needs to be explored."
Bell C, Newbigging J, Sheppard G, Aspler A, Kim DJ. A primer for clinical POCUS leadership in your emergency department. CJEM 2023; https://doi.org/10.1007/s43678-023-00450-0
Kim DJ, Burton JE, Hammad A, Sabhaney V, Freder J, Bone JN, Ahn JS. Test characteristics of ultrasound for the diagnosis of peritonsillar abscess: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acad Emerg Med 2023; https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.14660
Kim DJ, Bell C, Jelic T, Sheppard G, Robichaud L, Burwash-Brennan T, Chenkin J, Lalande E, Buchanan I, Atkinson P, Thavanathan R, Heslop C, Myslik F, Lewis D. Point of care ultrasound literature primer: Key papers on Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) and Extended FAST (E-FAST). Cureus 2022; 14(10):e30001. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.30001
Jarman RD, Colclough A, McDermott C, Bøtker M, Knudsen L, Harris T, Albaroudi B, Albaroudi O, Haddad M, Darke R, Berry E, Breslin T, Fitzpatrick G, Flanagan L, Olusanya O, Craver D, Omar A, Simpson T, Cherian N, Dore M, Prosen G, Kay S, Villén-Villegas T, Gargani L, Carley S, Woo M, Dupriez F, Hussain A, Via G, Connolly JA, Peck M, Melniker L, Walden A, Attard Biancardi MA, Żmijewska-Kaczor O, Lalande E, Geukens P, McLaughlin R, Olszynski P, Hoffmann B, Chin E, Muhr C, Kim DJ, Mercieca A, Shukla D, Hayward S, Smith M, Gaspari R, Smallwood N, Pes P, Tavazzi G, Corradi F, Lambert M, Morris C, Trauer M, Baker K, Bystrzycki A, Goudie A, Liu R, Rudd L, Dietrich CF, Jenssen C, Sidhu PS. EFSUMB clinical practice guidelines for point-of-care ultrasound: Part one (common heart and pulmonary applications) SHORT VERSION. Ultraschall Med 2022. https://doi.org/10.1055/a-1882-6116
Kim DJ, Olszynski P, Smith DJW, Lalande E, Woo MY. Point of care ultrasound training in Canadian emergency medicine residency programs. CJEM 2022; 24(3):329-334. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43678-022-00269-1
Kim DJ, Theyyunni N, Liu RB. Ultrasound is superior to supine chest x-ray for the diagnosis of clinically relevant traumatic pneumothorax. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2022; 93(1):e43-e44. https://doi.org/10.1097/ta.0000000000003575
Bell C, Kim D. A picture is worth a thousand words, but only if you can see it. CJEM 2022; 24(3):345-346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43678-021-00232-6
Long N, Ahn JS, Kim DJ. Adjunctive use of point of care ultrasound to diagnose compartment syndrome of the thigh. POCUS Journal 2021; 6(2):64-66. https://doi.org/10.24908/pocus.v6i2.15185
Long ND, Ahn JS, Monkewich GJ, Kim DJ. Point-of-care ultrasonography in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic cholecystitis. CMAJ 2021; 193(42):E1631-E1632. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.202394
Poonja Z, Ahn JS, Kim DJ. Just the facts: Ultrasound guidance for arthrocentesis. CJEM 2021; 23(6):737-739. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43678-021-00184-x.
Douglas-Vail M, Ogilvie K, Sutherland KA, Kim DJ. Clot in transit: A case for point of care echocardiography. Vis J Emerg Med 2021; 25:101096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.visj.2021.101096
Dion V, Sabhaney V, Ahn JS, Erdelyi S, Kim DJ. The physical examination is unreliable in determining the location of the distal fibular physis. Am J Emerg Med 2021; 50:97-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2021.07.040
Prager R, Pratte M, Guy A, Bala S, Bachar R, Kim DJ, Millington S, Salameh J, McGrath TA, McInnes MDF. Completeness of reporting for systematic reviews of point-of-care ultrasound: A meta-research study. BMJ Evid Based Med 2021; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111652
Arthurs L, Erdelyi S, Kim DJ. The effect of patient positioning on ultrasound landmarking for cricothyrotomy. Can J Anesth 2021; 68(1):24-29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12630-020-01826-x
Gottlieb M, Sundaram T, Kim DJ, Olszynski P. Just the facts: Point-of-care ultrasound for skin and soft tissue abscesses. CJEM 2021; 23(5):597-600. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43678-021-00132-9.
Golby R, Ahn J, Kim DJ. Man with persistent chest pain (ventricular septal rupture). Ann Emerg Med 2021; 78(2):e23-e24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.02.025
Kim DJ, Jelic T, Woo MY, Heslop C, Olszynski P. Misinterpretation of recommendations from the CAEP Emergency Ultrasound Committee as a case report. Echocardiography 2021; 38(4):718. https://doi.org/10.1111/echo.15033
Frenkel O, Barbic D, Francispragasm M, Murray D, Yoo J, Scheuermeyer FX. Elderly woman with cough, fever, and dyspnea. Ann Emerg Med 2021; 77(1):e64-e65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.07.002
Kim DJ, Jelic T, Woo MY, Heslop C, Olszynski P. Just the facts: Recommendations on point of care ultrasound use and machine infection control during the COVID-19 pandemic. CJEM 2020; 22(4):445-9. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2020.364
Kim DJ, Thiessen M, Strony R. Point-of-care ultrasound credentialing: Big picture principles for big health systems. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2020; 46(8):435-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjq.2020.06.001
Quan GE, Kendall JL, Bogseth MC, Ruygrok ML, Luoma KA, Louderback RZ, Pieracci F, Byyny RL. Predictors of false-negative focused assessment with sonography for trauma examination in pediatric blunt abdominal Trauma. Pediatr Emerg Care 2020; 36(5):e274-e279. https://doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002094
Olszynski P, Kim DJ, Liu R, Arntfield R. Multidisciplinary response to CAR's POCUS position statement. Can Assoc Radiol J 2020; 71(2):136-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0846537119898004
Olszynski P, Heslop C, Atkinson P, Lewis D, Kim DJ, Pham C, Ritcey B. Ultrasound at the point of care – Grown up and moving out! CJEM 2020; 22(1):1-2. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2019.448
Hans PS, Ahn JS, Kim DJ. Ultrasound features of rhabdomyolysis. CJEM 2020; 22(3):386-8. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2020.16
Arthurs L, Ahn JS, Kim DJ. Man with chest pain (type B thoracic aortic dissection). Ann Emerg Med 2020; 75(3):e15-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.10.007
Lewis D, Rang L, Kim D, Robichaud L, Kwan C, Pham C, Shefrin A, Ritcey B, Atkinson P, Woo M, Jelic T, Dallaire G, Henneberry R, Turner J, Andani R, Demsey R, Olszynski P. Recommendations for the use of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) by emergency physicians in Canada. CJEM 2019; 21(6):721-6. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2019.392
Olszynski P, Kim DJ, Ma IWY, Clunie M, Lambos P, Guzowski T, Butz M, Thoma B. The development of a provincial multidisciplinary framework of consensus-based standards for point of care ultrasound at the University of Saskatchewan. Ultrasound J 2019; 11(1):28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13089-019-0142-7
Kim DJ, Francispragasam M, Docherty G, Silver B, Prager R, Lee D, Maberley D. Test characteristics of point-of-care ultrasound for the diagnosis of retinal detachment in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 2019; 26(1):16-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13454
Andruko J, Kim DJ. Pregnant woman with abdominal pain (heterotopic pregnancy). Ann Emerg Med 2019; 73(5):e67-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.10.011
Kim DJ. Point of Care Ultrasound for Emergency Medicine and Resuscitation. Edited by Paul Atkinson, Justin Bowra, Tim Harris, Bob Jarman, and David Lewis. New York: Oxford University Press, 2019; 264 pp; $90.00 (paperback). Acad Emerg Med 2019; 26(12):1400-1. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13865
Poonja Z, Uppal J, Netherton SJ, Bryce R, Lyon AW, Cload B. Evaluation of emergency department ultrasound machines for the presence of occult blood. CJEM 2019; 21(3):395-398. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2018.447
Olszynski P, Kim DJ, Chenkin J, Rang L. The CAEP emergency ultrasound curriculum – Objectives and recommendations for implementation in postgraduate training: Executive summary. CJEM 2018; 20(5):736-8. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2018.35
Olszynski P, Kim D, Chenkin J, Rang L. The core emergency ultrasound curriculum project: A report from the Curriculum Working Group of the CAEP Emergency Ultrasound Committee. CJEM 2018; 20(2):176-82. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2017.44
Cessford T, Meneilly GS, Arishenkoff S, Eddy C, Chen LYC, Kim DJ, Ma IWY. Comparing physical examination with sonographic versions of the same examination techniques for splenomegaly. J Ultrasound Med 2018; 37(7):1621-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/jum.14506
Prager R, Sedgwick C, Lund A, Kim DJ, Ho B, Stachura M, Gutman SJ. Prospective evaluation of point-of-care ultrasound at a remote, multi-day music festival. Prehosp Disaster Med 2018; 33(5):484-489. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X18000821
Atkinson P, Olszynski P, Chenkin J, Kim DJ, Hall G. CJEM Debate Series: #PoCUS – All physicians practicing emergency medicine should be competent in the use of point of care ultrasound. CJEM 2018; 20(3):329-33. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2018.12
Iradukunda D, Lee J, Kim DJ. Unexpected source of fever: Liver abscess on point of care ultrasound. CJEM 2018; 20(5):802-3. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2018.408
Murray DJ, Kim DJ. An unusual case of exertional dyspnea: Atrial myxoma on point of care ultrasound. CJEM 2018; 20(1):146-7. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2017.351
Kim DJ. Chapter 7.2: Cricothyrotomy. In: Lewiss RE, Jones RA, Strony RJ, eds. Practical Guide to Critical Ultrasound, Volume 2. Dallas, TX: American College of Emergency Physicians; 2018:119-23.
Stachura M, Landes M, Aklilu F, Venugopal R, Hunchak C, Berman S, Maskalyk J, Sarrazini J, Kebede T, Azazh A. Evaluation of a point-of-care ultrasound scan list in a resource-limited emergency centre in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Afr J Emerg Med 2017; 7(3):118-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.afjem.2017.04.011
Murphy DL, Oberfoell SH, Trent SA, French AJ, Kim DJ, Richards DB. Validation of a low-cost optic nerve sheath ultrasound phantom: An educational tool. J Med Ultrasound 2017; 25(2):96-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmu.2017.01.003
Stringer CEA, Ahn JS, Kim DJ. Asteroid hyalosis: A mimic of vitreous hemorrhage on point of care ultrasound. CJEM 2017; 19(4):317-20. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2016.358
Francispragasam M, Yoo JH, Lam TV, Kim DJ. Diagnosis of a pericardial effusion with stable ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm by point-of-care ultrasound. CJEM 2017; 19(1):71-4. https://doi.org/10.1017/cem.2016.1
Kim DJ, Byyny RL, Rice CA, Faragher JP, Nordenholz KE, Haukoos JS, Liao MM, Kendall JL. Test characteristics of emergency physician-performed limited compression ultrasound for lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. J Emerg Med 2016; 51(6):684-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2016.07.013
Prager R, McCallum J, Kim D, Neitzel A. Point of care ultrasound in undergraduate medical education: A survey of University of British Columbia medical student attitudes. UBC Medical J 2016; 7(2):12-6. https://ubcmj.med.ubc.ca/point-of-care-ultrasound-in-undergraduate-medical-education-a-survey-of-ubc-medical-student-attitudes/
Ahn JS, French AJ, Thiessen ME, Browne V, Deutchman M, Guiton G, Madigosky W, Kendall JL. Using ultrasound to enhance medical students' femoral vascular physical examination skills. J Ultrasound Med 2015; 34(10):1771-6. https://doi.org/10.7863/ultra.15.14.11014
Stachura MR, Socransky SJ, Wiss R, Betz M. A comparison of the supraclavicular and infraclavicular views for imaging the subclavian vein with ultrasound. Am J Emerg Med 2014; 32(8):905-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2014.05.001
Ahn JS, French AJ, Thiessen ME, Kendall JL. Training peer instructors for a combined ultrasound/physical exam curriculum. Teach Learn Med 2014; 26(3):292-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2014.910464
Kim DJ, Theoret J, Liao MM, Kendall JL. Experience with emergency ultrasound training by Canadian emergency medicine residents. West J Emerg Med 2014; 15(3):306-311. https://doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2013.9.18025
Lee WW, Kim DJ. Migrating sternal rod: Ultrasound identification of an unusual soft tissue foreign body. J Emerg Med 2014; 46(4):e117-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.11.072
Kim DJ, Kendall JL. Fournier’s gangrene and its characteristic ultrasound findings. J Emerg Med 2013; 44(1):e99-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2012.01.015
Kim DJ. Chapter 28: Cholecystitis: Right-upper-quadrant pain in a 15-year-old female. In: McLario DJ, Kendall JL, eds. Case Studies in Pediatric Emergency and Critical Care Ultrasound Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2013:129-33.
Kim DJ. Chapter 56: Hip and Knee Arthrocentesis: Limp in a 5-year-old male. In: McLario DJ, Kendall JL, eds. Case Studies in Pediatric Emergency and Critical Care Ultrasound Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2013: 261-6.
Kim DJ, Theoret J, Liao MM, Hopkins E, Woolfrey K, Kendall JL. The current state of ultrasound training in Canadian emergency medicine programs: Perspectives from program directors. Acad Emerg Med 2012; 19(9):1073-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.2012.01430.x
Kim DJ, Welch M, Kendall JL. A case of Cesarean scar ectopic: A rare but important form of ectopic pregnancy. Crit Ultrasound J 2011; 3(1):55-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13089-011-0064-5